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Motherboard Functions And Its 9 Parts

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Function Parts - Motherboard or it can also be called Motherboard is the main component of a computer device, because on this motherboard all computer components will be connected to each other. The form of the motherboard itself is like an electronic circuit (PCB) that is connected to various components such as ICs and controllers.

The main function of the motherboard is as a place for data to pass. The motherboard will connect all the components of the computer and make them work together so that the computer runs smoothly.

Motherboards were first created in 1977, by Apple. Unlike now, in the past, various computer components such as CPU and hard disk were placed on a separate card, and connected using several cables.

Meanwhile, there is another definition which states that the motherboard or mainboard is the main board in the form of a PCB which has a bios chip (driver program), lines and connectors as an access link for each device. The word motherboard itself is abbreviated as MOBO because it is shorter.

MOBOs that are often found today are PC motherboards that were first made with the principle of being able to adapt to IBM PC specifications.

Motherboard Functions

image : pr-choice.com.au

The main function of the motherboard component is as a center for connecting between hardware. That is, the motherboard here has the task as a facilitator to connect the code language between hardware so that all hardware can synergize to run a computer device work activity. For example, the hardware connected to the motherboard is like a processor, RAM, hard disk, printer, power supply, and several others.

This motherboard is the main capital to make a PC, so if you understand the MOBO circuit you can assemble your own computer. It's just that, you are required to research the mobo to be purchased because each mobio has different specifications. Starting from the type of processor socket, BUS frequency, the number of SATA and PCI sockets, the number of RAM sockets, and most importantly the reliability of a brand of motherboard to be purchased.

You can buy this MOBO in several computer stores, because this hardware is also sold and bought. There are also various brands, so choose a credible reputable brand such as Gigabyte, Asus, Albatron, Aopen, Abit, ECS, Biostar, and Jetway so that your assembled computer does not hang. The price tag of each brand also has a fairly varied variant. Likewise for the sector specifications.

Types of motherboards


As mentioned above, this motherboard has its own type and specifications. Anything ?

  • ATX form factor. This is the first type of motherboard made. At that time Intel introduced the Advanced ATX Form Factor in 1995 with dimensions of 305 x 244 mm.
  • Form Factor Micro – ATX. This mobo is the result of the development of the ATX mobo, with lower production costs and performance. The size of this mobo is only 244 x 244 mm.
  • Mini Form Factor – ITX Mini Form Factor – This is a mini mobo type, which is intentionally made to get a computer that saves energy and power. The size of the Mini-ITX type motherboard is also small, which is around 170 x 170 mm.
  • Form Factor Pico – ITX. This mobo is a development of Mini - ITX, Pico - ITX motherboards have a smaller size, which is only about 100 x 70 mm.
  • Form Factor Nano – ITX. Unlike the Pico, this Nano - ITX motherboard has a fairly large size, which is around 120 x 120 mm despite carrying the name Nano.
  • NLX Form Factor. NLX stands for New Low Profile Extended. This Mobo feature only has a slot for expansion, and is a motherboard developed by Intel in 1997. This motherboard has a size of about 254 x 228 mm.


Motherboard Parts and Their Functions




1.Power Supply Unit (PSU)/Power Connector

The PSU is the pin that connects the motherboard unit to the power supply on the computer. There are 2 types of power supply connectors, namely the AT type and the ATX type. For the ATX type, this cable is united in one intact header while the AT type consists of two cables from the power supply that plug into one.

2.Socket/Slot Processor

Socket is a place to put the CPU (Central Processing Unit) or Processor. Between sockets and slots are different, usually one computer only has one type, but for certain computers there are those that have sockets and slots at the same time. For example on a computer with a multiprocessor.

3. Chipset

Chip or Chipset is a silicon package that serves to store information and instructions from the computer. The form of the chipset is like an electronic circuit that coordinates the transfer of data from various computer hardware (including processor and memory).

There are two kinds of chipsets on the motherboard, namely Northbridge and Southbridge.
The function of the Northbridge is as a bridge to connect data flows around the main memory, processor, front side bus and AGP bus and also regulates power management performance.
The function of the Southbridge is to regulate the performance of computer peripherals such as IDE Controller, PCI Bus, ROM Bios, Keyboard & Mouse, USB, Eth. LAN, Modem and others.

4. BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)

BIOS (Basic Input / Output System) is a basic program that is used as an interface between the operating system and the motherboard. The BIOS is stored in ROM (read-only memory), processing its data inside. In this BIOS there is also a program that is used to regulate how a component installed on the motherboard can work.

5. CMOS battery

This backup battery serves to provide power or electrical power to the motherboard in identifying the installed configuration, when the motherboard has not received electrical power from the power supply.

6. RAM slots

Just like the processor, Motherboard also has a special slot for RAM. And each type of motherboard has a different type of RAM slot. For old motherboards, it usually uses an SDRAM slot, while the latest types currently use DDR3 a lot.

7. IDE and SATA slots

Another slot that is SATA serves to connect the motherboard with storage devices such as floppy disks or hard drives. Usually on a mobo there is only 1 slot whether it's an IDE or SATA connector. But now both are in a motherboard.

8. Expansion Slots

An expansion slot is an additional slot or external slot on a computer that is used to upgrade a computer. There are several types of expansion slots, including PCI, PCIExpress, and AGP.

9. I/O Port

I/O port is short for Input or output port. There are several I / O ports on a computer, including:
  • Parallel Port (LPT), commonly used to connect a printer or joystick that still uses a parallel cable.
  • COM port, port for plugging a mouse or keyboard cable based on COM Port
  • PS/2 port, this port has a round shape, which is used to connect a ball mouse and keyboard based on PS/2 . Port
  • Game Port, this port is usually used to connect Game Pad
  • USB 1.1 / USB 2.0 (Universal Serial Bus) port is a universal port that can be used for all hardware such as mice, keyboards, printers, flash disks, digital cameras, and others that use USB.
  • LAN, port for connecting wired internet network/telephone/
  • Firewire, a special port that has a transfer rate of up to 400 Mb/s(version a) & 800 Mb/s (version b). This port is usually used to transfer
  • data to an external eSATA hard drive, is a new port that is used asa substitute for an external hard drive with a USB or firewire base.
  • Serial Port, a port used specifically for VGA computers with onboard VGA
  • Sound Port, are slots for sound purposes consisting of:
  • Line In, functions to record from other electronic devices
  • Mic, serves to connect the microphone from the headset
  • Front, used for general speakers such as stereo speakers


Damage to the motherboard

Damage to the mainboard components as the computer's main board will certainly have an impact on computer performance. What are the consequences if there is damage to the motherboard?

  • Computer often hangs/blank
  • The computer becomes slower or unresponsive.
  • Unable to boot or system startup.
  • The computer beeps repeatedly.
  • No display appears on the screen.
  • Computers often turn off automatically without us setting it.
  • There is a malfunction/incompatibility of hardware performance on the computer.


There are several things that can cause the motherboard on your computer to malfunction. The following are some of the causes that can make the motherboard become damaged, even unable to read at all:

  • BIOS error
  • Processor burned or overheated.
  • The regulator is faulty.
  • Insufficient or excessive supply of electric current.
  • Damage to the chipset.
  • Damage to other important parts such as IC clock and IC Reset.



That's a complete article about the parts of the motherboard and their functions, how do you understand what a motherboard is and what are the components on a motherboard? don't forget to read other related articles to increase our knowledge. Hopefully useful and add insight to all of us.
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